Big mummy dating
A mummified head, which could neither be attributed to the governor nor to his wife, was found atop the governor’s coffin (Figure 1).In an effort to learn more, the head was analyzed with computerized tomography (CT) in 2005.Together with older research showing that DNA degradation (depurination in particular) is primarily influenced by temperature, p H, oxygen, and water , these analyses suggested that Egyptian environmental conditions likely cause DNA to degrade to fragments smaller than 100 base pairs (bp) in just a few hundred years [14,15].Currently, forensic DNA testing at the FBI, as well as in nearly all global operational laboratories, is based on targeted PCR amplification of fragments ranging from 90–1200 bp in size, followed by size-based capillary electrophoresis for short tandem repeats (STRs) or Sanger sequencing for mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA).Upon discovery, the coffins of the governor were nearly intact with the exception of the head end that had been removed by tomb robbers.The intricate carvings and paintings on the governor’s outer coffin make it an unparalleled masterpiece of MK art (see pictures in ).
One of the primary advantages of HTS is that DNA fragments of very short size can be recovered and sequenced, thus obviating the need for targeted PCR.Both were nomarchs of the Hare Nome, and while they shared the same name (which means Thoth [the main local deity] is Strong), there is no evidence they were related.Tomb 10A contained a second occupant: the governor’s wife, who was also called Djehutynakht.The site is located on the east bank of the Nile River in close proximity to the city of Mallawi, approximately 250 km south of Cairo. In 1915, Deir el-Bersha was excavated by a joint MFA-Harvard University team directed by George A. Six days later, at the bottom of a 30-foot pit, they discovered the burial chamber of an early MK governor named Djehutynakht.Deir el-Bersha is known for tombs cut into cliffs of limestone that date back to the Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC), the First Intermediate Period (about 2100–2040 BC) and the Middle Kingdom (MK; 2040–approx. During the MK 11th and 12th Dynasties (2040–1783 BC), it served as the chief cemetery for the governors or regional lords (a.k.a. It is not yet clear whether he is Djehutynakht IV, son of Ahanakht I, or Djehutynakht V, son of Nehri I [1,2,3].